Indigenous Health Resources
Indigenous Peoples & Health Within Canada: List of Resources
Compiled by Dr. Amy Wright, February 5, 2020
Visit our Indigenous Health: Toronto Community Resources page for more local resources.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future: Summary of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. http://www.trc.ca/assets/pdf/Honouring_the_Truth_Reconciling_for_the_Future_July_23_2015.pdf
Michelin, O. (2017). How to Talk about Indigenous People. CBC News. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XEzjA5RoLv0
University of British Columbia. (2009a). The Indian act. Retrieved from http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/government-policy/the-indian-act.html
Self-Study: Free Webinar Series & Programs/Modules:
Cancer Care Ontario (*certificate for each completed module)
Northern Health Indigenous health
Indigenous Canada, University of Alberta
Indigenous Health Equity, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto
*Register (free), can request certificate if all 4 webinars are completed.
National Collaborating Centre for Indigenous Health
Thunderbird Partnership Foundation https://thunderbirdpf.org/nnapf-document-library/
Understanding Racism and Privilege:
Reading, C. (2013). Understanding racism. National Collaborating Centre for Indigenous Health
Loppie, S., Reading, C., & de Leeuw S. (2014). Aboriginal experiences with racism and its impacts.
National Collaborating Centre for Indigenous Health (NCCIH). https://www.nccih.ca/docs/determinants/FS-AboriginalExperiencesRacismImpacts-Loppie-Reading-deLeeuw-EN.pdf
Loppie, C. & Barker, A. (2016). Racism and privilege in the everyday. Indigenous Cultural Safety
Collaborative Learning Series. Webinar.
Mashford-Pringle, A. (2011). How’d we get here from there? American Indians and
Aboriginal peoples of Canada health policy. Pimatisiwin, 9(1). http://www.pimatisiwin.com/online/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/08Mashford-Pringle.pdf
DiAngelo, R. (2018). White fragility. Beacon Press, USA. (Book). White paper available at:
Cultural Safety & Trauma-Informed Care
Manitoba Trauma Information Centre. (2018). Trauma and Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved from
Adam, B.A. (2017). How I lost my mother, found my family, recovered my identity. Saskatoon
Star Phoenix. http://thestarphoenix.com/feature/scooped
Bombay, A., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2009). Intergenerational trauma: Convergence of multiple processes among First Nations peoples in Canada. National Aboriginal Health Organization: Journal of Aboriginal Health, 6–47. https://jps.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/ijih/article/download/28987/23916/
Amnesty International Canada. (2014). Violence against Indigenous women and girls in Canada:
A summary of Amnesty International’s concerns and call to action. Ottawa, ON. Retrieved from https://www.amnesty.ca/sites/amnesty/files/iwfa_submission_amnesty_international_february_2014_-_final.pdf
Catallo, C., Jack, S. M., Ciliska, D., & MacMillan, H. (2013). Minimizing the risk of intrusion: A
grounded theory of intimate partner violence disclosure in emergency departments. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(6), 1366–1376. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06128.x
Papps, E., & Ramsden, I. (1996). Cultural safety in nursing: The New Zealand experience.
International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 8(5), 491–497. https://academic.oup.com/intqhc/article-pdf/8/5/491/5215280/8-5-491.pdf
Browne, A., Smye, V., Rodney, P., Tang, S. Y., Mussell, B., & O’Neil, J. (2011). Access to primary care from the perspective of Aboriginal patients at an urban emergency department. Qualitative Health Research, 21(3), 333–348. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1049732310385824
Integrating Indigenous Health into Nursing Curricula
Canadian Nurses Association. (2018). Promoting cultural competence
Canadian Indigenous Nurses Association, Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing & Canadian Nurses Association (2009). Cultural competence and cultural safety in nursing education: A framework for First Nations, Inuit and Métis nursing. https://www.cna-aiic.ca/~/media/cna/page-content/pdf-en/first_nations_framework_e.pdf
Thurston, J. & Mashford-Pringle, A. (2015). Nursing & Indigenous education integration. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 5(10), 9-15. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/78a7/b9c4f7ea9bdd53a72932139d769295ac1128.pdf
Andersen, C. (2009). Indigenous footprints on health curriculum. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 38(Supplement), 40-45. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/04626F6D11573038CA0DE3698088F8D0/S1326011100000818a.pdf/indigenous-footprints-on-health-curriculum.pdf
Stansfield, D. & Browne, A.J. (2013). The relevance of Indigenous knowledge for nursing curriculum. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 10(1), 143-151. https://journals-scholarsportal-info.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/details/21945772/v10i0001/143_troikfnc.xml
Rowan, M.S., Rukholm, E., Bourque-Bearskin, L., Baker, C., Voyageur, E., & Robitaille, A. (2013). Cultural competence and cultural safety in Canadian schools of nursing: A mixed methods study. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 10(1), 1-10. https://journals-scholarsportal-info.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/details/21945772/v10i0001/1_ccacsionamms.xml
Blanchet Garneau, A., Browne, A.J. & Varcoe, C. (2017). Drawing on antiracist approaches toward a critical antidiscriminatory pedagogy for nursing. Nursing Inquiry, 25(e12211), 1-9. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/nin.12211
Kurtz, D., Janke, R., Vinek, J., Wells, T., Hutchison, P. & Froste, A. (2018). Health sciences cultural safety education in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States: A literature review. International Journal of Medical Education, 9, 271-285. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387770/pdf/ijme-9-271.pdf
Henry, F., Dua, E., Kobayashi, A., James, C., Li, P., Ramos, H. & Smith, M. (2016). Race, racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian universities. Race Ethnicity and Education, 20(3), 300-314. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13613324.2016.1260226?needAccess=true
Bopp, M., Brown, L. & Robb, J. (2017). Reconciliation within the academy: Why is Indigenization so difficult? https://teachingcommons.lakeheadu.ca/sites/default/files/inline-files/bopp%20brown%20robb_Reconciliation_within_the_Academy_Final.pdf
Greenwood, M., de Leeuw, S., & Lindsay, N.M. (2018). Determinants of Indigenous Peoples’ Health in Canada: Beyond the Social. Toronto, ON. Canadian Scholars Press Inc.
National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health (NCCAH) (2011) Access to health services as a social determinant of First Nations, Inuit and Métis health. https://www.ccnsa-nccah.ca/docs/determinants/FS-AccessHealthServicesSDOH-EN.pdf
2003 Massey Lectures: The Truth about stories: A Native Narrative by award-winning author &scholar Thomas King. https://www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/the-2003-cbc-massey-lectures-the-truth-about-stories-a-native-narrative-1.2946870
First Nations Health Authority, British Columbia: Our History, Our Health https://www.fnha.ca/wellness/our-history-our-health
Reading, C., & Wien, F. (2009). Health inequalities and social determinants of Aboriginal peoples’ health. Prince George, BC: National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. Retrieved from http://www.nccah-ccnsa.ca/docs/nccah reports/LoppieWien-2.pdf
Place, Jessica. (2012). The Health of Aboriginal Peoples Residing in Urban Areas.
National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. (pp. 1‐36). https://www.ccnsa-nccah.ca/docs/emerging/RPT-HealthUrbanAboriginal-Place-EN.pdf
Well Living House, Smylie et al. Our Health Counts Toronto: Developing a population based urban Aboriginal cohort to assess and enhance individual, family, and community health and wellbeing. Factsheets. http://www.welllivinghouse.com/what-we-do/projects/our-health-counts-toronto/
Maternal Health & Birthing
National Aboriginal Health Organization. (2009). Birthing through First Nations midwifery care. ‘ Retrieved from http://www.naho.ca/documents/fnc/english/Midwifery.pdf
Public Health Agency of Canada. (2017). Chapter 1: Family-centred maternity and newborn care in Canada: Underlying philosophy and principles. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/publications/healthy-living/maternity-newborn-care/maternity-newborn-care-guidelines-chapter-1-eng.pdf
Wright, A., Wahoush, O., Ballantyne, M., Gabel, C., & Jack, S. M. (2018). Selection and use of health services for infants’ needs by Indigenous mothers in Canada: Integrative literature review. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 50(2), 89-102. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0844562118757096
National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. (2012). The sacred space of womanhood:
Mothering across the generations a national showcase on First Nations, Inuit, and Métis women and mothering. http://www.nccah-ccnsa.ca/docs/child%20and%20youth/The%20Sacred%20Space%20of%20Womanhood%20-%20Mothering%20Across%20the%20Generations%20(EN%20-%20web).pdf
Wright, A.L., Jack, S.M., Ballantyne, M., Gabel, C., Bomberry, R., Wahoush, O. (2019). How
Indigenous mothers experience selecting and using early childhood development services to care for their infants. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Health & Well-being, 14(1). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/17482631.2019.1601486
Best Start Resource Centre (2012). Supporting the sacred journey: From preconception to parenting for First Nations families in Ontario. Toronto, Ontario. https://resources.beststart.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/E31-A.pdf
Indigenous Children & Youth
The Health of Canada’s Children and Youth
Perceptions of Pain
CBC News (2019). Mi’kmaw nurse explains how Indigenous pain often misunderstood.
Browne, A., Varcoe, C., Lavoie, J., Smye, V., Wong, S., Krause, M., Tu, D., Godwin, O., Khan, K.,
Fridkin, A. (2016). Enhancing health care equity with Indigenous populations: Evidence-based strategies from an ethnographic study. BMC Heralth Services Research, 16 (544), 1-17. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12913-016-1707-9
Latimer, M., Finley, G.A., Rudderham, S., Inglis, S., Francis, J., Young, S., & Hutt-MacLeod, D.
(2014). Expression of pain in Mi’kmaq children from one Atlantic Canadian community: A qualitative study. Canadian Medical Association Journal Open 2(3): E133-E138. http://cmajopen.ca/content/2/3/E133.full.pdf+html
Latimer, M., Simandl, D., Finley, A., Rudderham, S., Harman, K., Young, S., … Francis, J. (2014).
Understanding the impact of the pain experience on Aboriginal children’s well-being: Viewing through a Two-Eyed Seeing lens. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 9(1), 22–37. http://journals.sfu.ca/fpcfr/index.php/FPCFR/article/view/183/216
Nelson, S., Browne, A., Lavoie, J. (2016). Representations of Indigenous Peoples and use of pain medication in Canadian news media. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 7(1), 1-26. https://ojs.lib.uwo.ca/index.php/iipj/article/view/7484/6128
Scheim, A.I., Jackson, R., James, L., Sharp Dopler, T., Pyne, J., Bauer, G.R. (2013). Barriers to well-
being for Aboriginal gender-diverse people: Results from the Trans PULSE Project in Ontario, Canada. Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, 6(4), 108-120. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/EIHSC-08-2013-0010/full/html
Ristock, J., Zoccole, A. and Passante, L. (2010), Aboriginal Two-Spirit and LGBTQ Migration,
Mobility, and Health Research Project: Winnipeg Final Report, Winnipeg. http://www.2spirits.com/PDFolder/MMHReport.pdf
2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations. (2008) Our relatives said: A wise practices guide. https://www.rainbowhealthontario.ca/wp-content/uploads/woocommerce_uploads/2014/08/OurRelativesSaid.pdf
Hunt, S. (2016). An introduction to the health of Two-Spirit people: Historical, contemporary and emergency issues. National Collaborating Centre of Aboriginal Health. https://www.ccnsa-nccah.ca/docs/emerging/RPT-HealthTwoSpirit-Hunt-EN.pdf
Mental Health & Wellness
First Nations Mental wellness continuum framework https://thunderbirdpf.org/first-nations-mental-wellness-continuum-framework/
Thistle, J. (2019). From the Ashes. Simon & Schuster: Canada. (Book)
Thistle, J. (2017). Indigenous Definition of homelessness in Canada. Toronto: Canadian
Observatory on Homelessness Press. Available online at: https://www.homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/attachments/COHIndigenousHomelessnessDefinition.pdf
Indigenous Methodologies & Research
Key Readings on Indigenous Ways of Thinking, Methodologies and Decolonization. Available online at: https://ccqhr.utoronto.ca/resources/publications/
Bartlett, C., Marshall, M., & Marshall, A. (2007). Integrative science: Enabling concepts within a journey guided by trees holding hands and Two-Eyed Seeing. Sydney, NS.
Bartlett, C., Marshall, M., & Marshall, A. (2012). Two-Eyed Seeing and other lessons learned within a co-learning journey of bringing together Indigenous and mainstream knowledges and ways of knowing. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 2(4), 331–340. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs13412-012-0086-8.pdf
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, & Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. (2018). Tri-council policy statement 2: Chapter 9 Research involving the First Nations, Inuit or Métis peoples in Canada. Retrieved from https://ethics.gc.ca/eng/tcps2-eptc2_2018_chapter9-chapitre9.html
Iwama, M., Marshall, M., Marshall, A., & Bartlett, C. (2009). Two-Eyed Seeing and the language of healing in community-based research. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 32(2). https://search.proquest.com/docview/756676629/fulltextPDF/7DB4841013CE44ABPQ/1?accountid=14771
Kovach, M. (2009). Indigenous research methodologies: Characteristics, conversations, and contexts. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Peltier, C. (2018). An application of Two-Eyed Seeing: Indigenous research methods with participatory action research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17, 1–12. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1609406918812346
Schnarch, B. (2004). Ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) or self-determination applied to research: A critical analysis of contemporary First Nations research and some options for First Nations communities. Journal of Aboriginal Health, 1(1), 80–95. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2b5c/50f9f6f2884c462fda84682aa5d4004be75d.pdf
Smith, L. T. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
Wilson, S. (2008). Research is ceremony: Indigenous research methods. Halifax, NS, Canada: Fernwood.
Wright, A. L., Wahoush, O., Ballantyne, M., Gabel, C., & Jack, S. M. (2016). Qualitative health research involving Indigenous peoples: Culturally appropriate data collection methods. The Qualitative Report, 21(12). https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol21/iss12/5/
Wright, A. L., Gabel, C., Ballantyne, M., Jack, S.M., Wahoush, O. (2019). Using Two-Eyed Seeing in research with Indigenous people: An integrative review. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 18(1-19). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1609406919869695