Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing

Indigenous Health Resources

Indigenous Peoples & Health Within Canada: List of Resources

Compiled by Dr. Amy Wright, February 5, 2020

Visit our Indigenous Health: Toronto Community Resources page for more local resources.

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future: Summary of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

Michelin, O. (2017). How to Talk about Indigenous People. CBC News.

University of British Columbia. (2009a). The Indian act. Retrieved from

Self-Study: Free Webinar Series & Programs/Modules:

Cancer Care Ontario (*certificate for each completed module)

Northern Health Indigenous health

Indigenous Canada, University of Alberta

Indigenous Health Equity, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto

                *Register (free), can request certificate if all 4 webinars are completed.

Online Databases

National Collaborating Centre for Indigenous Health

Thunderbird Partnership Foundation

Understanding Racism and Privilege:

Webinar Series:

Reading, C. (2013). Understanding racism. National Collaborating Centre for Indigenous Health


Loppie, S., Reading, C., & de Leeuw S. (2014). Aboriginal experiences with racism and its impacts.

National Collaborating Centre for Indigenous Health (NCCIH).

Loppie, C. & Barker, A. (2016). Racism and privilege in the everyday. Indigenous Cultural Safety

Collaborative Learning Series. Webinar.

Mashford-Pringle, A. (2011). How’d we get here from there? American Indians and

Aboriginal peoples of Canada health policy. Pimatisiwin, 9(1).

                DiAngelo, R. (2018). White fragility. Beacon Press, USA. (Book). White paper available at:

Cultural Safety & Trauma-Informed Care

Manitoba Trauma Information Centre. (2018). Trauma and Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved from

Adam, B.A. (2017). How I lost my mother, found my family, recovered my identity. Saskatoon

Star Phoenix.

Bombay, A., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2009). Intergenerational trauma: Convergence of multiple processes among First Nations peoples in Canada. National Aboriginal Health Organization: Journal of Aboriginal Health, 6–47.

Amnesty International Canada. (2014). Violence against Indigenous women and girls in Canada:

A summary of Amnesty International’s concerns and call to action. Ottawa, ON. Retrieved from

Catallo, C., Jack, S. M., Ciliska, D., & MacMillan, H. (2013). Minimizing the risk of intrusion: A

grounded theory of intimate partner violence disclosure in emergency departments. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(6), 1366–1376.

Papps, E., & Ramsden, I. (1996). Cultural safety in nursing: The New Zealand experience.

International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 8(5), 491–497.

Browne, A., Smye, V., Rodney, P., Tang, S. Y., Mussell, B., & O’Neil, J. (2011). Access to primary care from the perspective of Aboriginal patients at an urban emergency department. Qualitative Health Research, 21(3), 333–348.

Integrating Indigenous Health into Nursing Curricula

Canadian Nurses Association. (2018). Promoting cultural competence in nursing.

Canadian Indigenous Nurses Association, Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing & Canadian Nurses Association (2009). Cultural competence and cultural safety in nursing education: A framework for First Nations, Inuit and Métis nursing.

Thurston, J. & Mashford-Pringle, A. (2015). Nursing & Indigenous education integration. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 5(10), 9-15.

Andersen, C. (2009). Indigenous footprints on health curriculum. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 38(Supplement), 40-45.

Stansfield, D. & Browne, A.J. (2013). The relevance of Indigenous knowledge for nursing curriculum. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 10(1), 143-151.

Rowan, M.S., Rukholm, E., Bourque-Bearskin, L., Baker, C., Voyageur, E., & Robitaille, A. (2013). Cultural competence and cultural safety in Canadian schools of nursing: A mixed methods study. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 10(1), 1-10.

Blanchet Garneau, A., Browne, A.J. & Varcoe, C. (2017). Drawing on antiracist approaches toward a critical antidiscriminatory pedagogy for nursing. Nursing Inquiry, 25(e12211), 1-9.

Kurtz, D., Janke, R., Vinek, J., Wells, T., Hutchison, P. & Froste, A. (2018). Health sciences cultural safety education in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States: A literature review. International Journal of Medical Education, 9, 271-285.

Henry, F., Dua, E., Kobayashi, A., James, C., Li, P., Ramos, H. & Smith, M. (2016). Race, racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian universities. Race Ethnicity and Education, 20(3), 300-314.

Bopp, M., Brown, L. & Robb, J. (2017). Reconciliation within the academy: Why is Indigenization so difficult?

Indigenous Health-General

Greenwood, M., de Leeuw, S., & Lindsay, N.M. (2018). Determinants of Indigenous Peoples’ Health in Canada: Beyond the Social. Toronto, ON. Canadian Scholars Press Inc.

National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health (NCCAH) (2011) Access to health services as a social determinant of First Nations, Inuit and Métis health.

2003 Massey Lectures: The Truth about stories: A Native Narrative by award-winning author &scholar Thomas King.

First Nations Health Authority, British Columbia: Our History, Our Health

Reading, C., & Wien, F. (2009). Health inequalities and social determinants of Aboriginal peoples’ health. Prince George, BC: National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. Retrieved from reports/LoppieWien-2.pdf

Place, Jessica. (2012). The Health of Aboriginal Peoples Residing in Urban Areas.

National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. (pp. 1‐36).

Well Living House, Smylie et al. Our Health Counts Toronto: Developing a population based urban Aboriginal cohort to assess and enhance individual, family, and community health and wellbeing. Factsheets.

Health Topics:

Maternal Health & Birthing

National Aboriginal Health Organization. (2009). Birthing through First Nations midwifery care. ‘  Retrieved from

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2017). Chapter 1: Family-centred maternity and newborn care in Canada: Underlying philosophy and principles. Retrieved from

Wright, A., Wahoush, O., Ballantyne, M., Gabel, C., & Jack, S. M. (2018). Selection and use of health services for infants’ needs by Indigenous mothers in Canada: Integrative literature review. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 50(2), 89-102.

National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. (2012). The sacred space of womanhood:

Mothering across the generations a national showcase on First Nations, Inuit, and Métis women and mothering.

Wright, A.L., Jack, S.M., Ballantyne, M., Gabel, C., Bomberry, R., Wahoush, O. (2019). How

Indigenous mothers experience selecting and using early childhood development services to care for their infants. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Health & Well-being, 14(1).

Best Start Resource Centre (2012). Supporting the sacred journey: From preconception to parenting for First Nations families in Ontario. Toronto, Ontario.

Indigenous Children & Youth

The Health of Canada’s Children and Youth

Perceptions of Pain

CBC News (2019). Mi’kmaw nurse explains how Indigenous pain often misunderstood.

Browne, A., Varcoe, C., Lavoie, J., Smye, V., Wong, S., Krause, M., Tu, D., Godwin, O., Khan, K.,

Fridkin, A. (2016). Enhancing health care equity with Indigenous populations: Evidence-based strategies from an ethnographic study. BMC Heralth Services Research, 16 (544), 1-17.

Latimer, M., Finley, G.A., Rudderham, S., Inglis, S., Francis, J., Young, S., & Hutt-MacLeod, D.

(2014). Expression of pain in Mi’kmaq children from one Atlantic Canadian community: A qualitative study. Canadian Medical Association Journal Open 2(3): E133-E138.

Latimer, M., Simandl, D., Finley, A., Rudderham, S., Harman, K., Young, S., … Francis, J. (2014).

Understanding the impact of the pain experience on Aboriginal children’s well-being: Viewing through a Two-Eyed Seeing lens. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 9(1), 22–37.

Nelson, S., Browne, A., Lavoie, J. (2016). Representations of Indigenous Peoples and use of pain medication in Canadian news media. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 7(1), 1-26.


Scheim, A.I., Jackson, R., James, L., Sharp Dopler, T., Pyne, J., Bauer, G.R. (2013). Barriers to well-

being for Aboriginal gender-diverse people: Results from the Trans PULSE Project in Ontario, Canada. Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, 6(4), 108-120.

Ristock, J., Zoccole, A. and Passante, L. (2010), Aboriginal Two-Spirit and LGBTQ Migration,

Mobility, and Health Research Project: Winnipeg Final Report, Winnipeg.

2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations. (2008) Our relatives said: A wise practices guide.

Hunt, S. (2016). An introduction to the health of Two-Spirit people: Historical, contemporary and emergency issues. National Collaborating Centre of Aboriginal Health.

Mental Health & Wellness

First Nations Mental wellness continuum framework


Thistle, J. (2019). From the Ashes. Simon & Schuster: Canada. (Book)

Thistle, J. (2017). Indigenous Definition of homelessness in Canada. Toronto: Canadian

Observatory on Homelessness Press. Available online at:

Indigenous Methodologies & Research

Key Readings on Indigenous Ways of Thinking, Methodologies and Decolonization. Available online at:

Bartlett, C., Marshall, M., & Marshall, A. (2007). Integrative science: Enabling concepts within a journey guided by trees holding hands and Two-Eyed Seeing. Sydney, NS.

Bartlett, C., Marshall, M., & Marshall, A. (2012). Two-Eyed Seeing and other lessons learned within a co-learning journey of bringing together Indigenous and mainstream knowledges and ways of knowing. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 2(4), 331–340.

Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, & Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. (2018). Tri-council policy statement 2: Chapter 9 Research involving the First Nations, Inuit or Métis peoples in Canada. Retrieved from

Iwama, M., Marshall, M., Marshall, A., & Bartlett, C. (2009). Two-Eyed Seeing and the language of healing in community-based research. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 32(2).

Kovach, M. (2009). Indigenous research methodologies: Characteristics, conversations, and contexts. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Peltier, C. (2018). An application of Two-Eyed Seeing: Indigenous research methods with participatory action research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17, 1–12.

Schnarch, B. (2004). Ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) or self-determination applied to research: A critical analysis of contemporary First Nations research and some options for First Nations communities. Journal of Aboriginal Health, 1(1), 80–95.

Smith, L. T. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

Wilson, S. (2008). Research is ceremony: Indigenous research methods. Halifax, NS, Canada: Fernwood.

Wright, A. L., Wahoush, O., Ballantyne, M., Gabel, C., & Jack, S. M. (2016). Qualitative health research involving Indigenous peoples: Culturally appropriate data collection methods. The Qualitative Report, 21(12).

Wright, A. L., Gabel, C., Ballantyne, M., Jack, S.M., Wahoush, O. (2019). Using Two-Eyed Seeing in research with Indigenous people: An integrative review. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 18(1-19).

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